Dental calculus (Plaque or Tar) is the result of dental plaque calcification. If plaque is not removed regularly, minerals from saliva combine with plaque to form crystals that harden into calculus. It is too hard and firmly attached to be removed with a toothbrush. Calculus can causes initial stages of gum inflammation which called gingivitis by produces toxins that can irritate the gum tissue.
Gingivitis is the mildest form of gum disease and typically associated with poor oral hygiene. The most common signs and symptoms of gingivitis include red, swollen gums, tender gums that bleed easily, especially after brushing and/or flossing. Gingivitis can usually be stopped and is managable since the bone and connective tissue are not yet affected with careful brushing, flossing, and regular cleaning by dental professionals.
Dentist will thoroughly clean your teeth in a process called scaling by using an ultrasonic dental instrument and sharp instruments to remove the calculus above and below the gumline and smooth the tooth’s surface which helps prevent plaque from adhering and more calculus from forming.
The best way to prevent gingivitis is to maintain good oral hygiene by brushing at least twice a day, flossing daily, visiting the dentist for regular checkups.